Behaviors in the Practice of Journalistic Work
"Always” answer 64% of journalists when asked how often they use sources to confirm an initial piece of information –“very often” answer 26.5%, while 7.5% respond “sometimes”.
Regarding the use of unfair and controversial means to obtain information, although the majority of the sample state that they never use such practices, 22% and 35% of the journalists, respectively, respond positively that they do use such means with a significantly different frequency.
For a total of 63% of journalists, their hierarchical superiors sometimes or systematically interfere with and distort their journalistic work –“sometimes” answer 40.5% of the sample, “very often” say 16.5%, “always” say 6%. Only three out of ten journalists surveyed say that their superiors never distort their work.
Overall, 62% of journalists state that they come, with varying frequency, into conflict with their hierarchical superiors in the work environment because of how the latter distort the journalistic work produced (“sometimes”: 38.5%, “very often”: 15.5%, “always”: 8%). On the other hand, the overall percentage of employees who note that they are constantly or sometimes in conflict with their superiors about the quality of their work amounts to 48.5% (“sometimes”: 35%, “very often”: 10%, “always”: 3.5%).
Only three out of ten journalists say that they are never censored by their superiors for issues that affect the interests of either their superiors or the media outlet. Overall, 65% of journalists respond that they are censored for this reason, with varying frequency –the majority (36%) responding “sometimes”.
Overall, 57.5% of journalists respond that they are being censored by their superiors as a result of political interference, with varying degrees of frequency: “sometimes” say 31%, “very often” 16.5% and “always” 10%.
The majority of journalists (81%) admit to self-censoring with varying frequency: “sometimes” 48%, “very often” 23% and “always” 9%. 17.5% of the sample say they “never” self-censor. 2.5% of the sample chose “do not know/no answer”, while the same answer to the questions on censorship by the hierarchical superiors was 6%.
“Never” is the answer given by the vast majority of the sample when asked if they deliberately report fake news. This percentage drops to 65% when the sample is asked about the unintentional reporting of fake news: in this case, 26.5% say that they “sometimes” do it.
Overall, 19.5% of journalists admit that, with varying degrees of frequency, they distort or withhold information in order to make their stories more appealing to the public. Eight out of ten respondents reply “never”.
A total of 34.5% of journalists responded that they publish stories or information from other’s reporting, without prior personal research to confirm them. Of the total sample, 10.5% admit that they rather regularly (“always”/”very often”) engage in this practice, while 24% answer “sometimes”.
Due to the given opposition of their employers to the publication of certain information on a case-by-case basis, a total of four out of ten journalists, either constantly or occasionally, distort or withhold information when publishing stories: “sometimes” answer 27.5%, “very often” 8.5%, “always” 3%.
Only three out of ten journalists say they “always” check information contained in press releases before they report it, while 9.5% of the sample say they “never” do so. This kind of confirmation of the information is carried out “sometimes” by 26% and “very often” by 30.5%.
Seven out of ten journalists say “sometimes” (43%) or “very often” (19%) or “always” (6%) they feel that they have not done their utmost to ensure the truth, accuracy and credibility of their journalistic output.
Eight out of ten journalists say they either constantly or occasionally publish stories they wish they had investigated further: 47% do so “sometimes”, 32.5% “very often” or “always”.
Only 37.5% of journalists respond that they are always paid on time. Overall, 55% say that, all the time or sometimes, they are not paid at the appointed time, while 7.5% of journalists chose not to answer.
A total of 48% of respondents say that, either all the time (21%) or sometimes (27%), they are afraid of being fired because of the stories they choose to research. 46% say that this “never” happens to them.
Six out of ten journalists take into account, “sometimes” (34.5%) or systematically (24.5%) the potential popularity of their stories in social media when preparing them.
Only 26.5% of journalists say they “never” receive aggressive comments when posting their stories on social media: instead, 44.5% say it happens “sometimes” and 23% note that they face aggression all the time on social media (“very often”/“always”).